While installing Vista service pack 1 the system froze with the error !!0XC0190001!! (604/72761) helppane.exe (this was a black screen with text only). Initially I recovered from this error by booting off the Vista installation DVD and doing a system restore.
I downloaded a standalone copy of the service pack 1 installer and tried again. Once again I ran into the same error during the install. This time I rebooted the system, hit F8 and chose Safe Mode. Vista started a safemode boot. It started loading files, and then appeared to stop, but the hard drive was still very active. I waited a while and it eventually rebooted itself, and the Vista service pack install continued, and successfully completed.
If you encounter this error try rebooting and go into safemode. Give the system some time and hopefully the service pack install will complete.
Also, if you search on this error you may find some forum discussions where it is advised to boot off the Vista DVD, attempt a repair, choose command prompt, and rename the offending file to .old, and then reboot and the service pack install should complete. I tried this and it did not work. Maybe it will work if this problem occurs with a different file but in my case, it did not help.